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Unified 2D and 3D cell-based high-throughput screening platform using a micropillar/microwell chip

January 11, 2016

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Prediction of metabolism-induced hepatotoxicity on three-dimensional hepatic cell culture and enzyme microarrays

November 15, 2017

Archives of Toxicology, 2017 Nov.15 (Accepted)

Human liver contains various oxidative and conjugative enzymes that can convert nontoxic parent compounds to toxic metabolites or, conversely, toxic parent compounds to nontoxic metabolites. Unlike primary hepatocytes, which contain myriad drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), but are difficult to culture and maintain physiological levels of DMEs, immortalized hepatic cell lines used in predictive toxicity assays are easy to culture, but lack the ability to metabolize compounds.
To address this limitation and predict metabolism-induced hepatotoxicity in high-throughput, we developed an advanced miniaturized three-dimensional (3D) cell culture array (DataChip 2.0) and an advanced metabolizing enzyme microarray
(MetaChip 2.0). The DataChip is a functionalized micropillar chip that supports the Hep3B human hepatoma cell line in a 3D microarray format. The MetaChip is a microwell chip containing immobilized DMEs found in the human liver. As a proof of concept for generating compound metabolites in situ on the chip and rapidly assessing their toxicity, 22 model compounds were dispensed into the MetaChip and sandwiched with the DataChip. The  IC50 values obtained from the chip platform were correlated with rat  LD50 values, human Cmaxvalues, and drug-induced liver injury categories to predict adverse drug reactions in vivo. As a result, the platform had 100% sensitivity, 86% specificity, and 93% overall predictivity at optimum cutoffs of  IC50 and Cmaxvalues. Therefore, the DataChip/MetaChip platform could be used as a high-throughput, early stage, microscale alternative to conventional in vitro multi-well plate platforms and provide a rapid and inexpensive assessment of metabolism-induced toxicity at early phases of drug development.



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